BLACK BELT QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between a thrust and a strike?
2. How many coloured belt patterns have a release in them?
3. How many coloured belt patterns have a back-fist strike in?
4. Name five types of back-fist strike?
5. How many coloured belt patterns have a fingertip thrust in them?
6. Name three coloured belt patterns that start in Moa Sogi?
7. How do you create power?
8. What is the Korean word for `breaking'?
9. What is the Korean term for consecutive kick and what does it mean?
10. What is the Korean word for combination kick and what does it mean?
11. Name three kicks that use the heel?
12. Name five vital spots of the upper body?
13. Name five vital spots of the middle body?
14. Name five vital spots on the lower body?
15. Count to ten in Korean.
16. Why do we twist the fist to punch?
17. What is the meaning of `Hwa-Rang'?
21. When was Tae Kwon-Do inaugurated?
22. What year did Tae Kwon-Do come to Great Britain?
26. What is the significance of the year 2333BC?
27. Who was Admiral Yi Sun Sin?
28. Why does the pattern Choong Moo end in a left hand attack?
29. Who was Ahn Joong Gun?
30. What is the significance of 29 movements in pattern Hwa Rang?
31. What is the significance of the year 686AD?
32. Who was Yi Hwang?
33. Who was Ahn Ch'ang Ho?
34. What do the 38 movements in Yul Gok represent?
35. What else does 38 signify in Yul-Gok?
36. Who was Yi I?
37. When would you use your toes to perform a kick?
38. What is the difference between `dwit' and `dung'?
39. What is the purpose of stances?
40. What is the difference between a back kick and a reverse side kick?
41. What is the Korean name for `grabbing knee kick'?
42. What is the blocking tool for `golcha makgi'?
43. What is the blocking tool in `digutja makgi'?
44. What is the difference between back back-fist strike and side
45. How do you know if a stance is a left or right stance?
46. What are the weight distributions for walking stance, low stance,
L-stance, X-stance and rear foot stance?
47. When you perform `anuro sonkal taerigi' (2nd move in Won Hyo), what
other arm used for?
48. Green signifies a plant's growth - what does the plant represent?
49. Who introduced Tae Kwon-Do to the UK?
50. What does `sun' mean?
51. What is `doo palmok makgi' used for?
52. What is `dollimyo makgi' used for?
53. What were the three kingdoms of Korea?
54. When were the three kingdoms unified?
55. When was the Yi Dynasty formed?
56. In `kaunde sun sonkut tulgi' what techniques are you performing?
57. What is the difference between a twin forearm block `sang palmok
a double forearm block `doo palmok makgi'?
58. Name the different knife hand strikes you know?
59. Name the different finger tip thrusts you know and possible target
60. General Korean - inward, upward etc
61. In `Yul Gok' when you perform the elbow strike, what is the hand you
striking used for?
62. Why is the palm facing up on a low section upset finger tip thrust?
63. Why do we use inner and outer forearm to block with?
64. Name the different elbow strikes & thrusts you know?
65. Name the kicks you know and the striking tool used?
66. What is the Korean name and purpose of double arc hand block?
67 What is the Korean name and purpose of horizontal punch?
68. What is the Korean name and purpose of 9-Shaped Block?
69. What do the pattern interpretations mean to you?
70. What is a pattern?
71. Why do we perform patterns?
72. Why do we learn the interpretation of patterns?
74. When did General Choi Hong Hi die?
75. What two further tenets would you suggest?
76. What is the formula for power?
77. What is kinetic energy?
78. What does Moa Junbi Sogi `A' represent?
79. Why do we perform `kyocha joomuk chookyo makgi' (as in Joong Gun)?
80. Why do we perform `kaunde sonkal taerigi' in L-stance in Dan Gun
18) but in sitting stance in Do San (movement 23)?
81. Why do we pull our elbows down sharply in `sonkal daebi makgi' and `palmok
82. What is Tae Kwon-Do?
83. What are the components of Tae Kwon-Do?
84. What is Taek Kyon?
85. What are the targets for `high flat fingertip thrust'?
86. Why do we practise patterns beyond 6th Dan?
87. Why are the floating ribs a vulnerable target area?
88. What does Mikulgi mean?
89. Why do we perform a breaking test?
90. Why do we perform 1 step sparring?
91. Why do Black Belts have additional black trim on their doboks?
92. How many coloured belt patterns have a bending ready stance in them?
93. What is the Korean for `turn'?
94. What is the Korean term for `waving kick' and what is its purpose?
95. What is the Korean for the following?
96. What are `sonkal batang' and `umji batang'?
98. What was the largest of the three kingdoms of Korea?
99. What is the difference between the side punch performed in Won Hyo
move) and in Hwa Rang (fifth move)?
100. What is the Korean for `Tenet'?
101. What are the tenets of Tae Kwon-Do in Korean?
102. What impact has Tae Kwon-Do had on your life?
103. What does being a Black Belt mean to you?
104. How would you say you have changed since your last grading?
105. What is the difference between an inward block and an inside block?
106. Why might you use knife hand to block rather than the forearm?
107. Is 4 directional punch `saju jirugi' a pattern?
108. Which kicks can use the instep as a striking tool?
109. Name the following parts of the arm in Korean (the examiner will
110. What is the difference between side piercing kick and side
111. What is the Korean term for wrist release?
113. What is the difference between turning punch `dollyo jirugi' and
114. What is the significance of the colours in the Tae Kwon-Do
115. What is the Korean term for wedging block and what is its use?
116. When might you use crescent kick?
117. What is the Korean term for master and who can use this title?
118. What is `sonbadak noollo makgi' used for?
119. What is Confucianism?
120. What is Neo-Confucianism?
BLACK BELT THEORY
1. A thrust goes straight to a target, whilst a strike can come from any
Thrusts are only performed using the fingers or the elbow.
2. Three - Do-San, Joong-Gun, Hwa-Rang.
3. Five - Do-San, Yul-Gok, Joong-Gun, Toi-Gye, Choong-Moo.
4. Front (as in no 3 three-step sparring)
Back (as in Toi Gye)
Downward (aiming for the shoulder)
Spinning (as in Do San)
Side (as in Choong Moo)
5. Six - Do-San, Won-Hyo and Yul-Gok and Hwa Rang (middle straight),
Toi-Gye (low upset and high flat), Choong-Moo (high flat).
6. Won-Hyo (A), Joong-Gun or Toi-Gye (B), Hwa-Rang (C).
7. Reaction force, waist/hip twist, speed, kinetic energy.
9. Yonsok chagi. A consecutive kick is when two or more kicks are
executed using the same foot without lowering the leg to the floor.
10. Honap chagi. A combination kick is when both feet are used to
or more kicks in succession while jumping or flying.
11. Downward (axe) kick (naeryo chagi)
Reverse turning kick (bandae dollyo chagi)
Hooking kick (golcha chagi)
12. Philtrum (injoong)
Mandibular joint (tok gwanjol)
Point of jaw (mit tok)
Adam's apple (gyol hoo)
13. Sternum (hyung gol)
Solar plexus (myong chi)
Floating ribs (nuk gol)
Stomach /abdomen (bokboo)
14. Coccyx (migol)
Shin (jong kwaeng-i)
15. 1 - Hanna
2 - Dool
3 - Seth
4 - Neth
5 - Dasaul
6 - Yosaul
7 - Ilgop
8 - Yodoll
9 - Ahop
10 - Yoll
16. For power and penetration.
17. Flowering Youth - Hwa (Flower) Rang (Young man).
21. Tae Kwon-Do was inaugurated in South Korea on 11 April 1955 by
Gen Choi Hong Hi.
22. Tae Kwon-Do was introduced to Great Britain in 1967 by Master Rhee
26. The year the Holy Dan Gun founded Korea.
27. Admiral Yi was posthumously awarded the title of Choong Moo (man of
loyalty and chivalry) for his victories over the Japanese navy. In 1592
invented the first armoured battleship, known as the Kobukson.
28. To symbolise Choong Moo's regrettable death, having no chance to
unrestrained potential checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty
king, (he refused to obey an order to intercept the Japanese fleet,
knew to be a trap).
29. Ahn Joong Gun was the patriot who assassinated Hiro Bumi Ito, the
Japanese Governor General of Korea. He was executed at Lui Shung prison
30. The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division where Tae
developed into maturity.
31. It's the year the noted monk Won Hyo introduced Buddhism into the
32. Yi Hwang was a 16th century authority on Neo-Confucianism, as stated
the pattern Toi Gye - (his pen name).
33. Ahn Ch'ang Ho devoted his entire life to furthering the education of
and its independence movement. His pseudonym was Do San.
34. The 38 movements refer to Yul Gok's birthplace on the 38 degree
35. It is the latitude that divides North and South Korea.
36. Yi I was a great philosopher and scholar (1536-1584) who was
the `Confucius of Korea'. His pseudonym was Yul Gok.
37. You would perform a kick using your toes only if you were wearing
38. Both mean `back'. Dung refers to a part of the body, e.g. `reverse',
sonkal dung (reverse knifehand). Dwit refers to the direction, as in
palkup tulgi (back elbow thrust).
39. Stances help to develop strong leg muscles and provide a stable base
which to execute techniques.
40. Nothing - they are both the same.
41. Butjaba moorup chagi.
42. Sonbadak (palm), then grabbing with bandal son (archand).
43. Sonkal dung (reverse knife-hand) then grabbing with bandal son (archand).
44. It is the direction of strike in relation to the body, i.e. towards
the back or side.
45. This is defined by whichever leg bears the most weight, or if evenly
distributed, whichever leg is forward.
46. Walking stance and Low stance (50:50)
X-stance and Rear foot stance (80:20)
47. The extended arm is used to grab and pull the opponent in, as a
It is also in the ready position to defend the body against another
48. The student.
49. Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha (9th Dan).
51. It is a sweeping block where the rear arm supports the main blocking
arm against a heavy attack. The rear arm also protects the mid section
and is in a position to perform a low block against a second attack.
52. Circular block is a combined block against a low kick and middle
attack. The block is first used to scoop the attacking leg and throw the
opponent off balance, then to block a following middle attack.
53. Silla, Baek Je and Koguryo.
54. Silla conquered Koguryo and Baek Je unifying the three kingdoms in
55. The Yi Dynasty was formed in 1392 AD after the fall of the Koryo
56. One arm is deflecting an attack and is then in a ready position to
defend the body,
whilst the other is performing a straight fingertip thrust.
57. A twin block is a defence against two attackers, and a double block
is a defence
against one attacker.
58. Knifehand side strike, (sonkal yop taerigi)
Knifehand front strike (sonkal ap taerigi)
Downward knifehand strike (naeryo sonkal taerigi)
Inward knifehand strike (anuro sonkal taerigi)
Outward knifehand strike (bakuro sonkal taerigi)
59. High flat fingertip thrust to the throat/eyes (nopunde opun sonkut
Middle straight fingertip thrust to the solar plexus (kaunde sun sonkut
Low upset fingertip thrust to the groin (najunde dwijibo sonkut tulgi)
60. an - inner
bakat - outer
anuro - inward
bakuro - outward
wi - upper
ollyo - upwards
ap - front
dwit - back
bandae - reverse
baro - obverse
najunde - low
kaunde - middle
nopunde - high
orun - right
wen - left
apro kaggi - forwards
dwiyro kaggi - backwards
dwiyro torro - about turn
dolgi - turn
61. It is used to focus your attack and simulates holding the opponent's
which you are striking.
62. If the hand is deflected upwards by the attacker (i.e. by a kick),
it can be
rotated to perform a forefist punch. The hand will also not be in a
be bent backwards by a kick.
63. Because of the inherent strength and close proximity of the bone to
of the skin, causing pain to the opponent on impact.
64. Front elbow strike (ap palkup taerigi)
Side elbow thrust (yop palkup tulgi)
Upper elbow strike (wi paluk taerigi)
Back elbow thrust (dwit palkup tulgi)
Straight elbow downward thrust (sun palkup naeryo tulgi)
Double elbow strike (jau palkuk taerigi)
65. Front kick (ap chagi) ball of the foot
Side kick (yop chagi) footsword
Turning kick (dollyo chagi) ball of the foot or instep
Back kick (dwit chagi) footsward
Reverse turning kick (bandae dollyo chagi) heel
Downward (axe) kick (naeryo chagi) heel
Crescent kick (bandal chagi) footsword (outward) or sole of the foot
Twist kick (bituro chagi) ball of the foot
Pressing kick (noollo chagi) footsword
Side pushing kick (yop cha milgi) footsword
66. Doo bandal son makgi - used as a checking block to the sternum or to
a thrown object.
67. Soopyong jirugi - the purpose is to defend against two attackers,
using a turning
punch (dollyo jirugi) for one coming at close range, and a side punch (yop
for the other at a middle distance.
68. Gutcha makgi - it is used to block a middle punch and to break the
69. Chon Ji - represents the beginning of human history - therefore
whatever goals we reach in our everyday life, we should not forget that
we all started out as beginners.
Dan Gun - legendary founder of Korea - inspirational.
Do San - patriot who devoted his entire life to furthering the education
of Korea and its independence movement, thus showing indomitable spirit
and loyalty to his country.
Won Hyo - introduced Buddhism into the Silla dynasty, therefore had the
perseverance and indomitable spirit to break with the traditional
ideology of the time.
Yul Gok - philosopher and scholar who was nicknamed `Confucius of
challenging the thinking of the time and showing his integrity in
Joong Gun - patriot who risked his own life by assassinating the
Governor General of Korea, therefore showed loyalty to his cause and his
Toi Gye - philosopher and scholar who was an authority on
challenging the thinking of the time and showing his integrity in
Hwa Rang - Flowering Youth Group who were instrumental in unifying the
kingdoms of Korea, showing their loyalty to their king and country, and
indomitable spirit through their motto `never to retreat in war'.
Choong Moo - great admiral and inventor who died before he could achieve
full potential constrained by his loyalty to king and country.
Kwang Gae - King Kwang Gae-T'o Wang, who was responsible for the
and expansion of territories once owned by Korea, therefore shows
indomitable spirit, perseverance and loyalty to his subjects.
Po Eun - great poet and scientist who showed loyalty to his king and
country and gave them inspiration through his poetry.
Ge Baek - known for his strict military discipline which might result in
perseverance and indomitable spirit in the armies.
70. A pattern is a set of fundamental movements, mainly attack and
defence, set in a logical sequence to deal with one or more imaginary
opponents. Patterns are an indication of a student's progress - a
barometer in evaluating an individual's
71. We practise patterns to improve our Tae Kwon-Do techniques, to
sparring techniques, to improve flexibility of movement, master body
develop muscles, balance and breath control. Patterns also enable us to
techniques which cannot be obtained from other forms of training.
72. The interpretation gives a pattern a meaning, each pattern is based
on a historic moment in Korean history, where legendary figures showed
loyalty, dedication and even gave their lives to make significant
changes to their country. We learn interpretations of patterns to gain
inspiration from the events and people portrayed in the meanings.
74. 15 June 2002. He was laid to rest on 17 June at Pyongyang.
75. Loyalty and Humility, because loyalty to their cause has been
demonstrated by the patriots, scholars and philosophers in the meaning
of the patterns. Humility is necessary to avoid aggression and shows
respect for others.
76. Force = mass x acceleration (F = MA)
Kinetic Energy = _ x mass x velocity x velocity (KE = _ MV2)
The energy available in a technique depends on the mass and the square
velocity. Speed (velocity) is therefore more important than mass in
power. We cannot change our mass, but we can increase our speed through
77. Energy from motion.
78. Um Yang which means `opposites' as in the hard and soft sides of Tae
Kwon-Do or the martial aspect vs the philosophical perspective.
79. To block a blow to the head and be in a position to grab the
opponent or weapon with both hands.
80. It depends on the direction of travel for the following move. In Dan
Gun the next move is forwards into nopunde ap joomuk jirugi, but in Do
San, the side strike is repeated along the same direction of travel.
81. To create tension, ready to guard the body from an attack. Bringing
the elbows down sharply may also help deflect an oncoming attack.
82. Tae Kwon-Do is a Korean military martial art, developed by General
Choi Hong Hi in 1955. Loosely translated it means Foot Fist Art. `Tae'
means to jump, smash or kick with the feet and `Kwon' to punch, strike
with the hand and `Do' is a way of life - or a philosophy to live your
83. Taek Kyon, Shotokan Karate and Subak.
84. Taek Kyon was an early Korean form of self-defence. Tomb paintings
dating back to 50BC show men practising forms known as Taek Kyon from
which Tae Kwon-Do developed.
85. Throat, eyes and philtrum.
86. To maintain balance and co-ordination and to continue to improve.
87. Because they are only attached to the spine and are unsupported at
the front/side, and therefore weak.
89. To demonstrate the power in the technique and to show commitment.
90. To practise defence techniques in as realistic a way as possible, to
practise speed and reaction to an attack.
91. The black trim is symbolic, as in ancient Korea the colour black
signified the highest position, i.e. royalty and the aristocracy.
92. Three - Won Hyo, Yul Gok, Choong Moo
94. Doro chagi - to defend against a kick to the groin. It can also be
used to stamp.
95. Head - Mori
Arm - Pal
Hand - Son
Foot - Bal
Chest - Gasum
Eye - Angoo
96. 'Base of knifehand' and `thumb ridge'
99. In Won Hyo, it is performed in fixed-stance moving only the front
foot with a body shift (milagi). In Hwa Rang it is performed in
fixed-stance while sliding both feet forward (mikulgi).
101. Courtesy - Ye ui
Integrity - Yom chi
Perseverance - In nae
Self control - Guk gi
Indomitable spirit - Baekjul boolgool
102. There is no set answer for this question, the examiner is looking
to understand your personal motivations.
103. There is no set answer for this question, the examiner is looking
to understand your personal motivations.
104. There is no set answer for this question, the examiner is looking
to understand your personal motivations.
105. Inward block refers to the direction of travel of the block, from
the outside towards the centre of the defenders body. Inside block
refers to the part of the opponent's body that is blocked i.e. the block
connects with the inside of the opponents arm or leg.
106. Using knife hand allows the defender to follow up the block with a
necessary. The force of a block is also applied to a very small area,
the defender to injure the opponent.
107. No, Saju jirugi is a fundamental exercise, not a pattern.
108. Turning Kick - Dollyo Chagi
Front kick - Ap Chagi
Twisting kick - Bituro Chagi
45 degree kick - Beet Chagi
109. Fore fist - Ap joomuk
Side fist - Yop joomuk
Back fist - Dung joomuk
Palm - Sonbadak
Knife hand - Sonkal
Fingertip - Sonkut
Fore knuckle fist - Inji joomuk
Middle knuckle fist - Joongji joomuk
Thumb knuckle fist - Umji joomuk
Inner forearm - An palmok
Outer forearm - Bakat palmok
Back forearm - Dung palmok
Under forearm - Mit palmok
Elbow - Palkup
110. Side piercing kick uses the foot sword as the striking tool and
side thrusting kick
uses the ball of the foot.
111. Jappyosol tae
113. In turning punch the fist finishes in line with the centre of the
body and in angle punch the fist finishes in line with the opposite
114. The colours white, yellow, green, blue, red and black represent all
of the belt colours in Tae Kwon-Do, which are based on the colours used
in ancient Korea to indicate rank and status.
115. Hechyo makgi. This block is used to defend against twin fist
vertical punch, or against an opponent attempting to grab the throat
with both hands.
116. Bandal chagi uses the foot to block an attack and can be used if
the arms are injured or if the opponent is further away.
117. Sahyun. Black belts ranked 7th and 8th Dan are entitled to use this
recognition of their extensive knowledge and experience of Tae Kwon-Do.
118. Palm pressing block is used to check a low section front kick. This
always accompanied by a palm upward block used to defend against a
punch. It is often performed in patterns as a conditioning exercise i.e.
as a slow motion movement.
119. Confucianism is the ethical system of the Chinese philosopher,
Confucius who was born in approximately 552BC. It is not a religion that
is based on the
worship of a supernatural power, more a collection of teachings
devotion to the family, morality and the proper exercise of political
120. Neo-Confucianism was developed in China around the 11th century AD
and is essentially a reinterpretation of Confucian teachings to
incorporate metaphysical aspects i.e. the nature of reality and man's
relationship with the universe. The most noted exponent of Neo
Confucianism was the 12th century Chinese philosopher Chu Hsi, but Yi I
and Yi Hwang of Korea also contributed many works.